The hydrological cycle is a conceptual model that describes the storage and movement of water between the biosphere, atmosphere, lithosphere, and the hydrosphere in closed cycle.
Sun is the driving force of hydrological cycle which provides energy for different processes such as evaporation, evapotranspiration etc. Water mainly evaporates from ocean and transforms to clouds in atmosphere which precipitates on land and ocean. Water on land eventually reaches oceans through run-off. Some amount of water precipitate in form of ice, whereas some water infiltrates as groundwater storage. The last reservoir is ocean. Water budget can be shown as:
Image to be added : coming soon
Hydrological cycle plays an important role in biogeochemical cycle, erosion cycle and agriculture etc. Salinity to ocean water is due to the erosion caused by run-off. Food security due to agriculture is totally depends upon hydrological cycle. Carbon, Nitrogen cycles i.e. nutrient cycles are also governed by hydrological cycle.
The properties of water and hydrological cycle are largely responsible for the circulation patterns we see in the atmosphere and the oceans. Changes in the cycle on circulation can result in major climate shifts and vice-versa.
Today, due to global warming, intensification of hydrological cycles is caused which in turn may result into severe weather conditions.
Studies show that increased frequency and severity of El-Nino is due to acceleration of the hydrological cycle.
Thus particularly in monsoonal Asia which is home to more than half of world’s population and people depend heavily on rain, changes in hydrological cycle will severely affected as the monsoon is affected by El-Nino.
Thus hydrological cycle is important part of climate system & its change & variability has great implications on human life.
Some Appreciation Please!